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Note 22. Research and development

Research and Development consists of the following:

 Year ended December 31,
Research and development expenses, net of capitalized development expenses50,41762,772
Amortization of capitalized development expenses10,89311,794
Research and development grants and credits(905)(985)
Total research and development expenses60,40573,581
Impairment of research and development related assets89316,154

The impairment of capitalized development expenses are primarily related to development of new hardware for which the customers demand has shifted out in time, and purchased technology which became obsolete. Of the impairment of capitalized development expenses an amount of relates to the 450mm development.

The Company’s operations in the Netherlands and the United States receive research and development grants and credits from various sources.