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Note 2. Subsidiaries

Unless otherwise indicated, these are, directly or indirectly, wholly-owned subsidiaries. With respect to the separate Financial statements of the Dutch legal entities included in the consolidation, the Company availed itself of the exemption laid down in section 403, subsection 1 of Book 2 of the Dutch Civil Code.

% Ownership December 31,
Subsidiaries (consolidated)
ASM Europe BV 1Almere, the Netherlands100%100%
ASM United Kingdom Sales BV 1Almere, the Netherlands100%100%
ASM Germany Sales BV 1Almere, the Netherlands100%100%
ASM Pacific Holding BV 1 3Almere, the Netherlands100%100%
ASM France SARLCrolles, France100%100%
ASM Belgium NVLeuven, Belgium100%100%
ASM Italia SrlAgrate, Italy100%100%
ASM Microchemistry OyHelsinki, Finland100%100%
ASM Services and Support Ireland LtdDublin, Ireland100%100%
ASM Services and Support Israel LtdKiryat Gat, Israel100%100%
ASM America, IncPhoenix, Arizona, United States of America100%100%
ASM Japan KKTokyo, Japan100%100%
ASM Netherlands Holding BVAlmere, the Netherlands100%100%
ASM China LtdShanghai, People’s Republic of China100%100%
ASM Wafer Process Equipment Singapore Pte LtdSingapore100%100%
ASM Front-End Sales & Services Taiwan Co LtdHsin-Chu, Taiwan100%100%
ASM Services & Support Malaysia SDN BDHKuala Lumpur, Malaysia100%100%
ASM Front-End Manufacturing Singapore Pte LtdSingapore100%100%
ASM Genitech Korea LtdCheonan, South Korea100%100%
ASM IP Holding BV 1Almere, the Netherlands100%100%
ASM NuTool IncWilmington, Delaware, United States of America100%100%
ASM Europe Holding BVAlmere, the Netherlands100%100%
Beheer- en Beleggingsmaatschappij Ingebel BVAlmere, the Netherlands100%100%
ASM Ion Implant BVAlmere, the Netherlands100%100%
Hamilcar Investments BVAlmere, the Netherlands100%100%
CVTR Development BVAlmere, the Netherlands100%100%
Rembrand Lease and Finance BVAlmere, the Netherlands100%100%
ASM Waver Process Equipment LtdHong Kong, People's Republic of China100%100%
Associates (non-consolidated)
Levitech BVAlmere, the Netherlands19.9%24.0%
ASM Pacific Technology Ltd 2Kwai Chung, Hong Kong, People’s Republic of China39.75%39.55%
  1. For these subsidiaries ASM International NV has filed statements at the Dutch Chamber of Commerce assuming joint and several liability in accordance with Article 403 of Book 2, Part 9 of the Netherlands Civil Code.
  2. This shareholding diluted in December 2015 as a result of the issuance of shares to 39.55%.
  3. ASM Pacific Holding BV holds 39.55% of the shares in ASM Pacific Technology Ltd.